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Antonios Anastasiou
<A.Anastasiou@leeds.ac.uk>

article posted 25 Apr 2017

Antonios Anastasiou:

Dr. Antonios D Anastasiou is a Marie Curie Fellow in University of Leeds and his research is focused on the development of new ceramic biomaterials for periodontal treatment with the use of femtosecond LASERS.


Mode-locked Laser Assisted Sintering and
Morphological Engineering of Gel-mineral based
Dental Biomaterials
- a new approach for the restoration of damaged enamel tissue!
A Anastasiou1, Animesh Jha1, T Edwards2, J G Addis1, C Thompson2, R Mathieson1, C Amorese3, R Ireson4, S Strafford5, M Malinowski5, M. N. Routledge6, A Brown1, J Bain6, T Brown2, Z Kalmej1, M Petruzzi7, R Grassi7, M S Duggal5, P V Giannoudis8


Enamel is the outermost hard tissue, protecting the softer dentine structure from oral challenges. Enamel has a unique microstructure and extraordinary mechanical properties as it is the hardest tissue of human body. In contrast with other biomineralised tissues, such as the bone and dentine, enamel is an acellular tissue and thus lacks the ability to regenerate itself. The lack of regenerative potential leads to perpetuation of acid erosion of enamel in oral acid environment and as this erosive wear progresses by exposing dentine possible complications are pain, pulpal inflammation, necrosis, and periapical pathology. In these cases the intervention of clinicians is essential but an effective, long term solution for the restoration of enamel is not yet available.

Motivated by this need, we have developed a novel technology for the exogenous mineralisation of dental enamel utilising mode-locked femtosecond lasers, Fe3+ doped mineral based biomaterials and chitosan rich gels [1]. The emergence of mode-locked near-IR (NIR) lasers has opened novel and exciting opportunities in clinical dentistry. In a mode-locked laser cavity the pulse duration and repetition rates may be controlled between 10 and 100s of femtosecond (fs) and kHz-GHz ranges, respectively. This unique capability for controlling the incident laser power in a near IR mode-locked laser has been explored for studying the materials phase transformation, sintering, bonding and crystallisation mechanisms in calcium phosphate and chitosan/calcium phosphate materials [2].

The investigation primarily focusses on interaction of such a laser in a linear regime, resulting in a plethora of phase combinations and morphologically controlled structures, which are well suited for in-theatre processing of enamel tissue for personalized therapy. Applications of this technique in a restorative dentistry scenarios (damaged enamel, recessed gum, periodontal ligaments, and implants) are anticipated in future using the same technology for different hard tissues. Such an approach has potential for clinical translation for a range of precision clinical procedures in clinics and operating theatres (fig.1).

References:

1. Anastasiou, A.D., et al., β-pyrophosphate: A potential biomaterial for dental applications. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 2017. 75: p. 885-894.

2. Anastasiou, A.D., et al., Sintering of calcium phosphates with a femtosecond pulsed laser for hard tissue engineering. Materials & Design, 2016. 101: p. 346-354.

Institutions:

1 School of Chemical & Process Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (UK).

2 School of Physics & Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (UK).

3 I.C.M.E.A. SRL, Via Mongelli 11 ? 70033 Corato (Bari) Italy

4 Glass Technology Services, 9 Churchill Way, Chapeltown, Sheffield S35 2PY (UK).

5 School of Dentistry, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (UK).

6 M Squared Lasers, Venture Building, 1 Kelvin Campus, West of Scotland Science Park, Glasgow (UK).

7 Dipartimento Interdisciplinare di Medicina, UniversitÓ degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy.

8 Leeds Institute of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (UK).